Exercises

In order to prevent or treat feet abnormalities, apart from using correct footwear, one needs also to provide the child with an appropriate set of exercises that will help strengthen muscles and correct improper position of feet.

Strengthening exercises for abdominal muscles


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SP: Lie on your back, with knees bent and feet flat on floor.
M: Lift your legs off floor (knees bent), put your hands on your knees and try to “wrestle” with your knees. Tighten the abdominal muscles and keep your lower back on the floor.
Remember to keep your lower back on the floor, if necessary put the sash under the lower back. If the lower back adheres properly to floor, it is not possible to pull out the sash.

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SP: Lie on your back, with knees bent, keep the ball between your feet. The ball should be slightly inflated with air, your lower back should adhere to floor.
M: Lift your legs to 90 o, then slowly move them down to 70-80 o and return to the initial position.  Simplified version: lift your legs to 90 o and  keep few seconds in this position. Remember to keep your lower back on the floor! Then, return to initial position.

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SP: Lie on your back, with knees bent and feet flat on floor.
M: Lift your legs off the floor to  90 o, move them to the right (10-30 cm from the body) and keep for 5-10 seconds. Then move your legs to the left side. Remember to keep your lower back on the floor!

Notes: Range of motion, time and number of repetitions (sets) depend on the strength of the abdominal muscles and should be selected individually.

Stretching the sciatic-tibial muscle.


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SP: Sit with your legs straight in front of you.
M: Wrap the centre of a  band around the balls of your foot. Hold the ends of the band with your hands, lay
down lifting your leg up in the air (keep your knee
straight)  to 80º-90º.

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SP: Sit with your legs straight in front of you.
M: Wrap the centre of a  band around the balls of your feet. Hold the ends of the band with your hands, lay
down lifting your legs up in the air (keep your knee straight) to 80-90 o.  Hold for 5-10 seconds.
Notes: Range of motion depends on the length of the sciatic-tibial muscles.
Do not lift the pelvis up off the floor.

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SP: Stand astride.
M: Bend forward – keep your legs straight and try to touch your fingers to the floor.  Hold for 5-10 seconds.
Notes: Your legs and arms should be perpendicular to the floor and parallel to each other. If you can’t touch your fingers to the floor, bend forward as much as you can and hold for 5-10 seconds.

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SP: Stand with your feet hip width apart, hands up.
M: Bend forward as much as possible trying to  put your left hand on the right ankle. Hold for 5 seconds, then switch sides and repeat. Remember to keep your legs straight.

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SP: Stand facing the gymnastic ladder.
M: Put one foot on the ladder rung at the height of your hips. Bend forward and hold for 5-10 second. Switch the leg and repeat.
Notes: Your legs should be perpendicular to the ladder.

Strengthening exercises of gluteus muscles.


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SP:  Lie on your back, with knees bent and feet flat on floor. Place the ball (max diameter 10 cm) between your knees.
M: Lift your hips up off the floor. Tighten the gluteus muscles  – the ball cannot be dropped!  Hold for 5-10 seconds.
Notes: Take in-breath through your nose and breathe out slowly through your mouth.

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SP:  Lie on your back, with knees bent and feet flat on floor. Place the ball (max diameter 10 cm) between your knees.
M: Lift hips up off the floor. Tighten the gluteus muscles– the ball cannot be dropped!  Then straighten your right leg and hold for 10 seconds. Switch leg and repeat.
Notes: Take in-breath through your nose and breathe out slowly through your mouth.

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SP: Lie on your back, with knees bent and feet on the ball.
M: Press your feet down into the ball and lift your hips – hold for 10 seconds.
Notes: Tighten the gluteus  muscles together. Take in-breath through your nose and breathe out slowly through your mouth.

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SP: Lie facedown on an inflated exercise ball with both feet on the floor, elbows bent.
M: Lift your legs up in the air . Tighten buttocks and abdomen, hold for 5-10 seconds. Take in-breath through your nose and breathe out slowly through your mouth.
Note: Remember to control the lumbar lordosis – avoid back hyperextension.

Stretching  the calf muscles.


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SP: Sit with your legs straight in front of you.
M: Wrap the centre of a  band around the balls of your feet. Hold the ends of the band with your hands, hold for 10 seconds. Then pull the bands to bend your feet back towards your body and hold for 10 seconds.

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SP: Stand on the first or second rung of a gymnastic ladder and hold the rung at height of your shoulder.
M: Rise up on your toes. Hold for 10 seconds. Then lower your heels below the level of the step as far as your flexibility allows  and hold for 10 seconds.
Notes: Trunk and pelvis should be straight and close to the ladder.

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SP: Stand facing the wall or gymnastic ladder. Place your hands on the wall in front of you and lean against it.  Take one step forward with your left foot. Bend your left knee slowly. Keep your right knee (back leg) straight,  try to push  right heel into floor – you will feel the stretch of the calf. Hold still for 10 seconds. Switch legs and repeat.
Notes:  Your feet and hips should be pointed directly towards the wall.

Stretching exercises for plantar aponeurosis


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M: Walk sideways on the stick, toes upraised.

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SP: Stand straight.
M:  Put a roll on the floor. Roll the bar with your feet.

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SP: Stand straight.
M: Put the right foot on the higher rung of  the ladder. Then, change the leg. Your feet should be turned outward.

Learning the proper foot loading


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SP: Sit on the ball.
M: Learn how to feel three-point support of your feet.  Put the small sheets of paper under 1st and 5th metatarsal head and under the heel (outside part). Try to keep all three sheets while the other person is trying to pull them out.
Note: An important element of the exercise is to keep your  knee over the foot.

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Learning about the forefoot eversion and pressuring the first metatarsal head, the heel is in the inversion.
The aim of the exercise is to learn forefoot eversion, how to press the first metatarsal head and keep the foot in inversion.
SP: Sit on the floor in butterfly position with  your feet turned up (eversion).  Place the balloon between your feet.
M: By eversion of the forefeet,  squeeze the balloon.

Strengthening exercises for dorsal flexor muscles of feet


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SP: Children are sitting opposite each other, legs straight, hands and arms backward, the feet are tied by tape.
M: Dorsiflexion of the foot. Hold for 5-10 seconds.

Exercises for keeping the balance


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M: Walk on the sensory discs – try to keep  the balance.

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SP: Stand straight.
M: Lifts one leg up and keep the balance as long as possible.
Notes: While standing, the ankle joints, knee and shoulder should be set according to the sagittal axis of your body.





SP: The child is trying to keep the position of the half squat
M: The second person is arranging his/her hands in various places on the body and is trying to throw the child off balance, gently pushing the child in various directions. The child is trying to stand steadily, not letting throw themselves off  balance.





SP: The child is in the position of the half squat, the knees are placed above feet (they cannot join themselves), feet are  placed in the parallel position.
M: Performing the jump ahead with stopping and the correct maintenance of the position.





SP: The child is in the position of the half squat, the knees are placed above feet (they cannot join themselves), feet are  placed in the parallel position.
M: Performing the jumps in various directions with stopping and the correct maintenance of the position.





SP:  Standing on one foot.
M: The child is standing one foot  and he/she is trying to reach as far he /she can, not touching the floor.





SP: The Child is in the standing position with feet stretched to the width of hips, at the knees level there is a tape , which is slightly tied.
M: Slow performance of the half  squat with keeping knees above feet and slight stretching of the rubber tape. The hands must be extended ahead. The child in the position of the half squat is holding on for 5-10 seconds.





SP: The Child is in the standing position with feet stretched to the width of hips, at the knees level there is a tape, which is slightly tied.
M: the jump on both feet with stopping the movement in the position of the half squat. Keeping the position the child is guarding knees to be above the feet and the rubber tape to be slightly stretched. The jumps should be made on the soft base, such as a mattress, foam , a thick blanket.



SP: the child is standing in the slight straddle position, the feet  are placed in the parallel position. The ends of the rubber tape are put  from the paracentral of the forefoot, under  the first head of the metatarsus. The heels are loaded on the outside.
M: while holding the ends of the rubber tape, the child is performing  the half squat he is controlling the knees to be placed above the feet), and he/she  is  dragging the hands obliquely up. He/she is stopping in this position correcting the posture  for  5-10 seconds as well as he/she is controlling the breath while exercising.



SP: The standing position. There is a rubber tape at the hips level.
M: The child is performing slowly the walk ahead stretching the tape, next, after a few steps he/she is stopping, keeping the stable position. Then slowly the child is taking steps backwards.



SP: The standing position. There is a rubber tape is at the shin level.
M: The child is walking slowly, stretching the tape. After a few steps he is stopping and keeping the position for a while and he is moving backwards with small steps.



SP: Standing on both feet. there is a rubber tape under one foot.
M: While keeping the balance. he is performing the flexion movement and he is keeping this position for a few seconds,  controlling the knee to project on the middle of the foot.



SP:  Standing on both feet. there is a rubber tape under one foot.
M: The child is bending the leg ahead in the hips and he is keeping his balance in this position for a few seconds.



SP: The child is in the standing position, the legs are In the parallel position, there is a rubber tape under one foot  from the paracentral of the forefoot, the hands are holding the second end of the stretched tape.
M: The child is making the step backwards, placing the feet in the parallel position and pushing the heel of the second leg  in the floor. While stretching the tape, he is keeping this position for a few seconds.



Jumps on the ball with the ends of the rubber tape put from the paracentral under the forefoot. Heels pressed on outside to the floor. The child is stretching the rubber tape pulling it up and he is performing the jumps slowly on the ball holding the ends of the rubber tape under the first head of the metatarsus.



SP: The child is by the wall and he is performing the positions of the half squat.Pressing his back to the wall and keeping the position for a few seconds he is paying attention to the correct load of the feet and placing the knees above the foot.
M: The child is moving hands ahead and he is moving the back away from the wall. By the wall, there are only buttocks stuck out to the back. He is keeping this position for a few seconds, correcting the placing of the feet.



SP: The child is sitting on the ball. His legs are dissuaded, placed in the outside rotation. The parent is holding the child by shins.
M: The parent is moving the child on the side, and the child has to keep his balance by extending the trunk, it is possible to perform similar tilts when the child is lying back to the ball or in the  front of the ball.



SP: The child is lying on its belly on the ball.
M: While holding the child by his legs, the parent is pushing him ahead, and the child is leaning on hands against the floor. Next he is bending hands in elbows, trying to touch  the floor with the nose.





Keeping the child’s  balance in the back lying position on the ball and changing the support on the hands to the support on the legs.





Jumps on the ball with the ends of the rubber tape put from the paracentral under the forefoot. Heels pressed on outside to the floor. The child is stretching the rubber tape pulling it up and he is performing the jumps slowly on the ball holding the ends of the rubber tape  under the first head of the metatarsus.



SP: The child is sitting on the ball, the slightly stretched rubber tape is put on the forefoot. The tape is attached to the ladder or the leg of the table is going above the second foot.
M: The child is making a move forward  in the hip joint. After a few seconds he is making a slow return to the initial  position.



SP: The child is sitting on the ball, the slightly stretched rubber tape is put on the forefoot of the leg, which is positioned closer to the place, where the rubber is tied . The tape is attached to the ladder or the leg of the table.
M: The child is making the move back in the hip joint, keeping this position for a few seconds



SP:  The child is sitting on the ball. Under the foot there is the rubber tape, which is slightly stretched.
M: the child straightens the leg out, stretching the rubber tape. In this position he is trying to keep his balance for a few seconds.



SP: The child is sitting on the ball. Under the feet there is the rubber tape.
M: The child is raising his leg while keeping his balance. In the beginning of the exercises the parent can support the ball. Then the child is trying to raise the legs on his own and keep his balance on the ball.





SP: The child is lying with his back on the ball. The parent is holding the child by his legs placed is the small outward rotation.
M: The child is changing his lying position to the sitting position by raising his head. The parent can help the child a little to do the exercise by  pushing the child’s body to him/her.



SP: The children are standing in front of each other. They are holding their hands on the ball.
M: Pushing the ball, the second back leg is placed straight, the child is trying to push the heel of the second leg into the floor.





SP: The standing position, there is one foot on the ball.
M: While pushing the foot into the ball he/she is moving it forward on the floor, pushing the forefoot  harder and pushing the heel back harder in the ball. The child is performing several slow repetitions  of rolling the ball and the he is changing the leg.





SP: The child is sitting supported on forearms. The ball is placed on lower limbs near the feet.
M: The child is lifting its legs high is trying to roll the ball toward stomach. When the ball is placed near hip joints, the child is doing a back support lifting hips and rolling the ball towards feet.





Balance exercises
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